Old at heart: A solution to red giants’ age paradox Citation: Seeing ‘Strange’ Stars (2006, February 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-02-strange-stars.html Right now, physicists postulate that if strange stars exist they possess enormous density gradient at surface and exhibit a luminosity beyond that of other stars. The conventional wisdom is that the electric field of a strange star at its surface would be so large that it would be impossible to determine that the strange star is anything but. This paradigm has existed in astrophysics since the possibility of stars made from strange quark matter was acknowledged.Jaikumar, working out of Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, and his two partners from Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico want to challenge that. Working with Sanjay Reddy and Andrew W. Steiner, Jaikumar has developed a new theory about what a strange star would look like. And it is not as obvious as once thought.“We haven’t found strange stars yet,” Jaikumar explains. “But that doesn’t mean they don’t exist. Maybe we have found them. Maybe some of these neutron stars are really strange stars. According to our theory, it would be very difficult to tell a strange star from a neutron star.”So, if strange stars look like neutron stars by observation, how would physicists tell the two apart? Jaikumar admits that there might be some difficulty there. “There might be a slight difference. You’d look at surface temperature and see how stars are cooling in time. If it is quark matter, the emission rates are different, so the strange star may cool a little faster. People thought there would be a distinction, but we’re saying it might not be that easy.”Jaikumar, Reddy, and Steiner also explain the surface characteristics of a strange star. Under the traditional view, a strange star surface is smooth, hence the need for the super density gradient at surface and the large electric field. The strange star view espoused by Jaikumar and his colleagues includes a crust with strange quark nuggets.“It’s like taking water,” Jaikumar says, “with a flat surface. Add detergent and it reduces surface tension, allowing bubbles to form. In a strange star, the bubbles are made of strange quark matter, and float in a sea of electrons. Consequently, the star’s surface may be crusty, not smooth. The effect of surface tension had been overlooked before.” And it also explains that a strange star wouldn’t need a large electrical field at surface or be super-luminous. It also allows for a strange star to be less dense than originally thought. Any star core is going to be dense, but a strange star surface does not need to be as dense as once thought to be neutral. Scientists believe that at high density strange quark matter is more stable than regular matter, which is comprised of up and down quarks. These sub-atomic particles are constituent parts of protons and neutrons. Jaikumar believes that as a neutron star spins down and its core density increases, it may convert to the more stable state of strange quark matter, thus forming a strange star.Jaikumar, Reddy, and Steiner make a few assumptions in their theory. The letter published in Physical Review Letters assumes small Coulomb and surface costs. It also calls for relaxing conditions of local charge neutrality in order to reduce quark matter strangeness fraction and lower a quark’s free energy. And the letter assumes that corrections due to Debye screening and curvature energy will be negligible. The problem, Jaikumar explains, is the difficulty in obtaining exact numbers from the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is the fundamental description of the forces discussed in the letter. “The uncertainties are large enough that we are unable to form a conclusive statement on whether these nuggets could actually form. We want to be able to quantify the assumptions better.”However, the new view of strange stars has far-reaching applications. Jaikumar explains: “Finding a strange star would improve our understanding of QCD, the fundamental theory of the nuclear force. And it would also be the first solid evidence of stable quark matter.”By Miranda Marquit, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Could what we see as neutron stars really be so-called strange stars? Prashanth Jaikumar and his fellow researchers think so. They recently published a letter in Physical Review Letters that redefines the characteristics of a star composed mainly of strange quark matter. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Male silverback Gorilla in SF zoo. Image: Wikipedia. (Phys.org) — With humans, mothers and other adults have developed a whole separate way of communicating with infants, toddlers and even teens, but that kind of purposeful conversing style is unique; among primates only the rhesus macaque has been found to alter its vocalizations for the young. Now though, two researchers studying captive western lowland gorillas have found the animals use a slightly different form of communication when conversing with their young. After studying many hours of tape, the two: Eva Maria Leuf and Katja Liebal, as they describe in their paper published in the American Journal of Primatology, have found that gorilla mothers use special hand gestures to get their point across to their young and tend to repeat them till the message is understood. Explore further Lowland gorillas have a variety of gestures at their disposal for communicating with one another as they lack an oral language. They use hand and body gestures as well as facial expressions to convey what it is they have on their minds. Adults may sweep straw at one another, as an example, to invite the other to play. Others may touch hands to show they have nothing in them, or to initiate other contact. Most adults also lightly press a flat palm down on another’s head to indicate that they are done with whatever the two of them have been doing together; a gesture the researchers found mothers use extensively and repeatedly with their young.With the infants the researchers found such gestures can be exaggerated and repeated and sometimes some are used exclusively when communicating with their offspring. They found this out by taking 120 hours of video footage of gorillas interacting at Howletts and Port Lympne Wild Animal Parks in Britain and Leipzig Zoo in Germany. In watching the animals interact, the two noticed that the adults communicated in slightly different ways when addressing the young, and that the mothers in particular seemed to be speaking in a form of gesture based baby talk, they describe as “’non-vocal motherese.”In general the researchers found that mothers engaged in gentle touching and stroking of their little ones, particularly on the face, sometimes using gestures that were never used among adults. They also used light slaps on occasion to get the infants to understand them, an altered form of communication among adults. In addition it was noted that all of the adults tended to repeat gestures when communicating with the young, a sign that they were clearly aware of the fact that the babies were still learning the lingo. © 2012 Phys.Org More information: Infant-Directed Communication in Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla): Do Older Animals Scaffold Communicative Competence in Infants? American Journal of Primatology, DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22039AbstractInfant-directed speech is a linguistic phenomenon in which adults adapt their language when addressing infants in order to provide them with more salient linguistic information and aid them in language acquisition. Adult-directed language differs from infant-directed language in various aspects, including speech acoustics, syntax, and semantics. The existence of a “gestural motherese” in interaction with infants, demonstrates that not only spoken language but also nonvocal modes of communication can become adapted when infants are recipients. Rhesus macaques are so far the only nonhuman primates where a similar phenomenon to “motherese” has been discovered: the acoustic spectrum of a particular vocalization of adult females may be altered when the addressees are infants. The present paper describes how gorillas adjust their communicative strategies when directing intentional, nonvocal play signals at infants in the sense of a “nonvocal motherese.” Animals of ages above infancy use a higher rate of repetitions and sequences of the tactile sensory modality when negotiating play with infants. This indicates that gorillas employ a strategy of infant-specific communication. How gorilla gestures point to evolution of human language Citation: Lowland gorillas found to use gesture ‘baby talk’ with their young (2012, June 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-06-lowland-gorillas-gesture-baby-young.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
China’s Yutu lunar rover finds moon geography more complex than thought © 2015 Phys.org The Magellanic Clouds and the stream of neutral hydrogen. The insets show the image of the largest satellite discovered (Eridanus 2) as well as the smallest one (Indus 1). The insets are 13×13 arcminutes on the sky (or 3000×3000 DECam pixels) for Eridanus 2 and 6.5×6.5 arcminutes (or 1500×1500 DECam pixels) for Indus 1. Credit: V. Belokurov, S. Koposov (IoA, Cambridge). HI image: M. Putman (Columbia) Explore further In other space news, new dwarf galaxies were discovered in orbit around the Milky Way and a team in China reported that the Yutu lunar rover found that the moon’s geography is more complex than thought—its radar found at least nine distinct rock layers. And NASA explained how its revolutionary ion engine took a spacecraft to Ceres. Meanwhile, another team of researchers found evidence that suggests the Milky Way may be much larger than previously estimated—perhaps 50 percent larger.In unrelated news, a team of researchers at Vanderbilt University has developed a network theory that sheds new light on the origins of consciousness. By studying the ways brain areas communicate with one another during the time when a person is engaged in conscious thought and applying graph theory, the team believes they have found a way to show that thinking is nothing more than widespread communication between parts of the brain. Also, a team of researchers with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency announced that they had made a wireless energy breakthrough—they found a way to use microwaves to deliver 1.8 kilowatts of power through the air to a receiver 55 meters away, potentially opening the door to a whole new way to tap solar energy.And finally, exciting news for baby boomers and others of their generation, a team of researchers has found a drug that restores brain function and memory in early Alzheimer’s disease. Thus far, it appears it might be useful for use in patients who are believed to be at high risk of developing the disease. It has once again been an interesting week for physics—a team working in China demonstrated a quantum communication scheme that transferred quantum states without transmitting physical particles. They showed it was possible, using entanglement, to send quantum information between two distant points without having to send anything else. Also, a team of astrophysicists has found a possible loophole in cosmological theory that offers insight into the “lithium problem.” Actual measurements used to calculate the total amount of lithium in the universe have not jibed with theory, and now a team at Université Savoie Mont Blanc is suggesting that the problem may be connected to the theory of electromagnetic cascades. Citation: Best of Last Week—Transferring quantum states, wireless energy breakthrough and a drug that helps Alzheimer’s patients (2015, March 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-weektransferring-quantum-states-wireless-energy.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: T. Ying et al. Higgs Mode of Planar Coupled Spin Ladders and its Observation in C9H18N2CuBr4, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.127201Tao Hong et al. Higgs amplitude mode in a two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet near the quantum critical point, Nature Physics (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nphys4182 Explore further © 2019 Science X Network Neutrons detect elusive Higgs amplitude mode in quantum material “The observation and understanding of the Higgs amplitude mode in quantum magnets is exciting, since it connects research in high-energy physics (Nobel prize 2013 for the observation of the Higgs particle) to similar concepts in condensed matter physics,” Kai Phillip Schmidt and Stefan Wessel, two of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org via email. “However, this mode is rather fragile in many planar magnets, so its potential experimental detection in a planar quantum magnet of coupled spin ladders by inelastic neutron scattering came as a surprise.”For the purpose of the study, Schmidt developed an approximate theory, which was yet to be rigidly confirmed via quantitative modeling. To achieve this, Wessel, with whom Schmidt was well acquainted, and Tao Ying, a postdoctoral student under Wessel’s supervision, decided to try applying Monte Carlo simulations to this problem. Essentially, they set out to examine the dynamic spin structure factor of previously identified planar coupled spin-ladder systems using QMC simulations. Their combined study, published in Physical Review Letters (PRL), allowed them to achieve a quantitative understanding of the Higgs amplitude mode described in previous research.”The dynamical structure factor is important, since it contains the full information about the magnetic excitations (like the Higgs amplitude mode) and it is the essential quantity that is measured by inelastic neutron scattering,” Schmidt and Wessel said. “Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations are a very powerful numerical tool to study certain classes of quantum magnets and to extract the dynamical structure factor, which is typically very hard to obtain by other means.”Using state-of-the-art QMC simulation techniques, Schmidt, Wessel and Ying were able to compare the numerical values of certain excitation energies to those measured in inelastic neuron scattering. This subsequently allowed them to pinpoint the magnetic interactions present in a particular quantum magnet.”The quantitative modeling of the specific experimental quantum magnet and the possibility to interpret the nature of the observed magnetic excitations in theory allows the rigorous identification of the Higgs amplitude mode in a two-dimensional system of coupled spin ladders,” Schmidt and Wessel said. “Furthermore, we were able to trace the properties of the Higgs amplitude mode over a large parameters space in our model. This allowed us to follow this particle up to the so-called Ising limit, which is one of the most paradigmatic models in physics.”In their study, Schmidt, Wessel and Ying were able to explicitly understand the Higgs amplitude mode observed in previous experiments as a bound state of two conventional magnetic excitations, which is in analogy to a molecule being made up from atoms. Their work demonstrates the feasibility of formulating a quantitative theory for understanding the spin dynamics of near-quantum-critical 2-D magnets, using state-of-the-art QMC simulation techniques. While they specifically applied their theory to compound C9H18N2CuBr4, they believe that it could also be used to understand the quantum spin dynamics of other similar magnetic compounds. “There are various interesting routes to follow in the future,” Schmidt and Wessel said. “In particular, it will be important to gain an understanding of the fate of the Higgs amplitude mode when it is tuned closer to quantum critical points, e.g. when applying a magnetic field or external pressure, how does this excitation behave and does it become instable?” Journal information: Physical Review Letters A figure that shows the researchers’ main result – the Higgs mode signal in the dynamical structure factor in the setup relevant to the previous neutron scattering experiments. Credit: Ying, Schmidt & Wessel. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Recent polarized inelastric neutron scattering experiments have identified the amplitude (i.e. Higgs) mode in C9H18N2CuBr4, a 2-D, near-quantum-critical spin ladder compound that exhibits a weak easy-axis exchange anisotropy. Inspired by these findings, researchers at RWTH Aachen University, Harbin Institute of Technology and the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg have carried out a study examining the dynamic spin structure factor of planar coupled spin-ladder systems using large-scale quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. Citation: Using QMC simulations to examine the dynamic spin structure of planar coupled spin ladders (2019, April 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-qmc-simulations-dynamic-planar-coupled.html , Nature Physics
Citation: Researchers model unihemispheric sleep in humans (2019, July 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-unihemispheric-humans.html Some animals, such as birds, dolphins, and whales, can engage in unihemispheric sleep, in which one hemisphere of the brain sleeps while the other hemisphere remains awake. Staying half-awake allows animals to literally “keep an eye open” for predators, and for migrating birds, allows for uninterrupted flight for days or even weeks on end. © 2019 Science X Network More information: Lukas Ramlow, Jakub Sawicki, Anna Zakharova, Jaroslav Hlinka, Jens Christian Claussen and Eckehard Schöll. “Partial synchronization in empirical brain networks as a model for unihemispheric sleep.” EPL. DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/126/50007 Credit: Gordon Johnson from Pixabay Explore further Journal information: Europhysics Letters (EPL) Using MRI data from 20 humans on 90 different brain sites, the researchers investigated how the brain transitions from incoherence (awake) to synchronization (asleep). As they explain, the coupling within each individual hemisphere (intra-hemispheric coupling) is stronger than that between the two hemispheres (inter-hemispheric coupling). By decreasing the inter-hemispheric coupling strength while keeping the intra-hemispheric coupling strength fixed in their model, the researchers observed that one hemisphere exhibited more synchronized activity than the other, resembling unihemispheric sleep and the chimera state.”Previously it has been speculated that ‘chimera states’ may occur in nature in the form of unihemispheric sleep (which is known for certain animals), but no realistic modeling was given,” Schöll said. “The significance of our work is that we have shown for the first time by modeling the dynamics of the two brain hemispheres using empirical human brain connectivities that partial synchronization similar to unihemispheric sleep can indeed occur. Moreover, we have identified the mechanism of this relying on different strengths of the intra-hemispheric (strong) and inter-hemispheric (weak) coupling.”The results support the idea that unihemispheric sleep requires a certain degree of separation between the two hemispheres. The researchers found that this separation can occur due to the brain’s structural asymmetry. It’s well-known, for example, that the two hemispheres have different sizes of corresponding brain regions and different neuronal densities within these regions. Based on their model, the researchers found that even a slight structural asymmetry results in a dynamical asymmetry, in which one hemisphere exhibits more synchronized firing patterns than the other, as in a chimera state. So overall, the structural asymmetry in the brain may explain the underlying mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep and the related first-night effect, but many questions remain unanswered.”In future research we plan to investigate more thoroughly the state of unihemispheric sleep in our model (which uses dynamics on empirical structural connectivities of human brains), with respect to the following questions,” Schöll said. “Which areas of the brain hemispheres are synchronized, which are not? Can we identify a kind of relay in the brain which mediates synchronization between different areas of the brain? How is such relay synchronization related to memory, or to learning, or to perception? Also, we are investigating how epileptic seizures, which are associated with spontaneous strong synchronization of the brain, can be initiated and terminated.” Can ‘sleeping’ while you’re awake boost brain function? Although unihemispheric sleep is not known to occur in humans, recent research has found that humans exhibit a similar sleeping style when they experience troubled sleep in a new location for the first time, called the “first night effect.” This effect involves asymmetric dynamics between the two hemispheres: while the right hemisphere engages in normal slow-wave sleep, the left hemisphere experiences shallower sleep, suggesting that it may be staying partially alert.Now in a new study, researchers have further investigated the underlying mechanisms of this sleep activity in order to develop a model of unihemispheric sleep in the human brain. The paper, by Lukas Ramlow et al., is published in a recent issue of EPL.”Our research has shown that spontaneous dynamic symmetry breaking of the two brain hemispheres is possible also for humans,” coauthor Eckehard Schöll, a professor of theoretical physics at Technische Universität Berlin, told Phys.org. “Since different sleep stages are associated with different degrees of synchronization, I believe that some weak form of unihemispheric sleep, i.e., different sleep depth of the two hemispheres, can well occur in humans, not only in whales, dolphins, seals, and migratory birds.”In the human brain, the sleep and wake states can be distinguished by their different forms of electrical activity. When awake, neurons in the brain fire in an asynchronous, somewhat chaotic fashion, whereas neurons in the sleeping brain fire in a more synchronized manner. Previous research has suggested that the two hemispheres of the brain can be viewed as two coupled populations of oscillators, as both hemispheres generate electrical signals in a coordinated way. From this perspective, unihemispheric sleep occurs when the brain occupies a state of two coexisting domains, consisting of one synchronized (sleeping) hemisphere and one incoherent (awake) hemisphere. In physics, this type of state, which is characterized by the coexistence of order and disorder, is called a “chimera state.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Teamwork brings to India a unique theatrical experience, inspired from the world-famous Edinburgh Fringe Festival. Presenting ‘Going Solo’ — India’ first and only International Solo Theatre Festival that brings to the stages of Delhi award-winning and riveting one-person acts, showcasing the magic of theatre in its essence.After the Capital, this first of its kind festival with three solo productions will be performed in Bangalore and Mumbai – Churchill by Pip Utton (UK), Adolf by Pip Utton (UK) and At The Edge by Jailoshini Naidoo (South Africa). Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Pip Utton began writing and performing one man shows sixteen years ago. Since then he has won acclaim and awards throughout the world and has established a reputation as one of the leading writers and performers of solo theatre. Pip writes, produces and tours easily staged, accessible text based drama that engages directly with the audience. He aims not only to entertain but also to stimulate the mind.Riveting is an overused adjective, but when Jailoshini Naidoo steps on stage, in the first of the stories focusing on a melee of diverse characters drawn from the 40’s/ 50’s Cato Manor tapestry. Popular television presenter in South Africa, she has appeared in numerous stage productions including Jungle Book, This Black Woman, the critically acclaimed one-hander 1949 in which she played 38 characters among others. The Delhi chapter kicked off from 15 October with shows of At the Edge and Adolf. Next day had shows of Churchill and At the Edge. We say, don’t miss this one!
The pride, the happiness and the eternal strive for a better tomorrow keeps ever Indian alive amidst all odds. Celebrating the 68th year of independence, Nehru Bal Sangh organised Jashn-e-Azadi. A glorious account of India’s history played out in front of a packed house. The audience were taken back in time when India could be best described as the soone ki panchi that the British had their eyes set on. The journey traced the freedom struggle, the sacrifices of martyrs like Mangal Pandey, Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose, Mahatma Gandhi till the momentous occasion that witnessed the unfurling of the Indian tri-colour at Red Fort instead of the Union Jack. India’s time is now. Beautifully and poignantly brought to life by Sadhya, directed by Santosh Nair, Jashn-e-Azadi was a celebration of history, of the spirit of the country and of the future that lies ahead for us. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The peformance instilled the various emotions that reflects in the journey from peace and serenity of the golden age, the pain and humiliation of suppression, the passion of Independence and the enthusiasm of progress of the present. The production also emphasised the need of the hour, for the nation to come together yet again, converting their concerns into actions. Santosh Nair shares, ‘The idea behind the production is to celebrate the spirit of freedom. It is also to emphasize the need to strongly pay attention to the fact that with freedom comes the roots of responsibility.’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAnd this was also reiterated by the chief guest for the celebrations – Karan Singh, member of parliament and president of Indian Council for Cultural Relations who said that India is progressing but no country can reach its pinnacle if a staggering percentage of citizens are deprived and starving. Singh urged those who were present to take it upon themselves to do their bit for the nation. The National President of Nehru Bal Sangh Ashok Sahota said that Jashn-e-Azadi has been noticed not only by sensitive citizens but by all, that is what exactly what NBS aims at – every Indian should celebrate this day with full zeal and belongingness like we celebrate the other festivals.
KOLKATA: The Special Task Force (STF) of Kolkata Police has played a major role in helping the Maharashtra Anti-Terrorist Squad (ATS) to arrest a Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) activist from Mumbai. The arrest of the LeT operative has come up as a major breakthrough because it helped in averting major terrorist attacks in different cities of the country. It was on Sunday when the Maharashtra ATS arrested one Faisal Hasan Mirza.Faisal used to stay in Mumbai and work as an electrician. He is originally a resident of Uttar Pradesh but had shifted to Mumbai and put up a base there. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsSources said Kolkata Police had come to know about it while probing into another case and kept a track about him. Investigation revealed that he came to Kolkata from Mumbai before leaving for Sarjah. He left for Sarjah from Kolkata itself. He met one of the top leaders of Indian Mujahideen, Amir Reja Khan, who is from Kolkata’s Beniapukur. Both of them went to Pakistan where Faisal underwent training on preparing explosives and operating firearms. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAbout a few days ago, Kolkata Police received information about his return to the country. The police started keeping a tab and learnt that he has once again gone back to Mumbai. Police came to know that he went to Mumbai via Kolkata. They got to know that a major plan has been chalked out to stage terrorist attacks in some of the cities and the blueprint has been prepared by keeping Faisal as the head of the team that will execute the plan.The STF of Kolkata Police handed him over to the Maharashtra ATS and now they are carrying on with the further investigation to get more information about the plan that has been chalked out. Moreover, police are also trying to squeeze out names of the people who were in touch with Faisal and helping him to continue with the activities.
Kolkata: The state Panchayat and Rural Development department has chalked out an elaborate plan to declare Bengal an open defecation free (ODF) state by December 31.A high-level meeting was held at the panchayat department on Friday. Subrata Mukherjee, state minister for Panchayat and Rural Development department and AR bardhan, principal secretary, Dibyendu Sarkar, commissioner attended the meeting. The deadline for completion of Swatch Bharat Abhiyan is October 2, 2019 but the state government wants to declare all the 23 districts as defecation free much ahead of the schedule. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe districts that are lagging behind have been asked to step up work. The districts that are yet to be declared as defecation free are, Gorkha Territorial Adeministration ( GTA) which include Darjeeling, Siliguri Mahakuma Paridhad, Jalpaiguri, Alipurduar, north Dinajpur, Jhargram, Bankura and Purulia. Of these districts, Siliguri Mahakuma Parishad and Alipurduar are much ahead of the remaining six districts and will be declared open defecation free shortly. Fourteen districts have been declared open defecation free. It may be mentioned that Nadia is India’s first district which was declared open defecation free. The other districts are North 24-Parganas, South 24-Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly, East Burdwan, West Burdwan, East Midnapore, West Midnapore, Birbhum, Malda, Murshidabad, South Dinajpur and Cooch Bihar. It may be recalled that in a meeting held in Nadia in 2014, Subrata Mukherjee had requested the district magistrates to take up the challenge of declaring the districts open defecation free. The DMs took the challenge and plans were made by them to address the problem. Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJPIn several districts, groups comprising the villagers were formed requesting people to stop open defecation.Senior officials of Panchayat and Rural development department said the biggest issue now will be to make the villagers aware about using toilets and maintain them properly. As the state government will not provide any money for maintenance of the toilets, they will be defunct if not used and maintain properly.Also, the villagers are made aware about the cleaning of toilets and flushing them after use. If toilets habits can be created properly among the villagers, then it will be easier to control many diseases from which they are suffering.
Kolkata: The Bengal government is keen on setting up more export cells in the districts, to disseminate information among young entrepreneurs from the far flung areas on how to open start-up businesses and what procedure one has to follow to initiate his/her business.The state Industry and Commerce department has already initiated a process to set up an industry centre at all the districts, so that interested people get to know about the schemes of various projects at these centres. The export cells will be set up at the district industry centres. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeOfficers from departments like Industry and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) would be there at the export cells, who will give answer to the queries of the people who are interested in start-ups.The small and medium scale entrepreneurs will be briefed about the government schemes and young entrepreneurs will be taught how to do documentation. Industry and MSME officers in the districts will be given training in this regard from time to time. According to a senior state government official, an elaborate plan is being chalked out to set up more export centres in the districts, in order to make the entire process smoother. The officers who will be posted in these centres will have special training in this sector. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe officers at the export cells will also examine the problems the industry people are facing. They will meet interested people from time to time and inform them how to avail various benefits offered by the state government. West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation (WBIDC) and the MSME department will take care of the export cells.It may be mentioned here that industry has been a thrust area for the Mamata Banerjee government. The state government has been able to achieve export growth rate of 11.17 percent last year. There has been an export of 8.23 billion US Dollars from Bengal in the financial year 2016-17, which has gone up to 9.15 billion US Dollars in 2017-18. Products worth around Rs 62,000 crore have been exported from the state in 2017-18. The Industry and Commerce department has been working to export various products to new countries, so that the overall export goes up.One of the main purposes of the move is to increase the export growth rate. It can also be mentioned that the Bengal government has already set a target of doubling the export growth rate within 2021. The Commerce and Enterprise minister Amit Mitra, during a programme a few months ago, reiterated the vision of his department.